Academic Staff
Dr. KWONG, Chi Man

Associate Professor, Department of History


PhD, MPhil Cantab,
BA (Hons) The Chinese University of Hong Kong.


(852) 3411 6431


Modern Military History, 1500-1945;
Modern Chinese and East Asian History, 1860-1949;
British Military Presence in Hong Kong, 1840-1997.


Refereed scholarly books and monographs


  • Chi Man, KWONG. Hongkongers in the British Armed Forces, 1860-1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022).


  • Chi Man, KWONG. War and Geopolitics in Interwar Manchuria: Zhang Zuolin and the Fengtian Clique during the Northern Expedition (Leiden: Brill, 2017).


  • Chi Man, KWONG; Yiu Lun, TSOI. Eastern Fortress: A Military History of Hong Kong, 1840-1970 (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2014).


  • Chi Man, KWONG. Old Soldiers Never Die: Hong Kong Chinese Soldiers in the British Forces (老兵不死:香港華籍英兵) (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing, 2014).

Non-Refereed scholarly books and monographs


  • Chi Man, KWONG. State for the People or State for War? The Intellectual Officers, Military Science and Military Change before the Second Sino-Japanese War民國乎?軍國乎?第二次中日戰爭前的民國知識軍人、軍學與軍事變革 (Hong Kong: Chunghwa Books, 2017).


  • Chi Man, KWONG. Road to Liberation: Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong, 1942-1945 (重光之路:日據香港與太平洋戰爭) (Hong Kong: Cosmos, 2015).


  • Chi Man, KWONG; Yiu Lun, TSOI. Exposed Outpost: the Battle of Hong Kong in the Pacific War (孤獨前哨:太平洋戰爭中的香港戰役) (Hong Kong: Cosmos, 2013).


  • Victor Fung-shuen SIT; Chi Man, KWONG. A History of Heung Yee Kuk (新界鄉議局史:從租借地到一國兩制) (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing (Hong Kong), 2011).


Refereed Journal Publications


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Reappraising the Battle of Hong Kong: Preliminary Observations from a Spatial History Project,” Canadian Military History, Vol. 30, No. 2, (2021), pp. 1-38.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Debating “Douhetism”: Competing Airpower Theories in Republican China, 1928-1945,” War in History (Sage), Vol 28, Issue 1, 2021 (published online in 2019), pp. 93-117.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “The ‘Warlord Officers’: A Collective Biography of the Anguojun Officers during the Republican Period and Beyond, 1871-1995,” Journal of Chinese Military History (Brill), Vol. 8, No. 2, (2019), pp. 115-158.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Building a ‘Total Mobilization State’: Discussions on War and Society by the Intellectual Officers of the Fengtian Army,” American Journal of Chinese Studies (American Association of Chinese Studies), Vol. 26, No. 1, (2019), pp. 1-15.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “From the ‘New Territories People’ to ‘Indigenous Population’: the Construction of Identity of the Rural Population in Colonial Hong Kong 從「新界人」到「原居民」:英治時期香港新界鄉民的身份建構” Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 52, No. 2, (2018). (Centre for Greater China Studies, Education University)


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “The Nationalist Intelligence Services in Japan-Occupied Hong Kong, 1942-1945 (國民黨在日據香港的軍事情報活動),” Bulletin of Academia Historica (Academia Historica), Vol. 57, (2018), pp. 39-78.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Intellectual Officers, Professional Journals, and Military change of in the Northeast and National Revolutionary Armies, 1928-1937,” Journal of Modern Chinese History (Taylor & Francis, Institute of Modern History of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), Vol. 11, No. 2, (2017), pp. 180-208.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Review Article: Regional Studies on the War of Resistance: Two Works about South China” (抗戰史的區域角度:關於抗戰華南的兩本著作《逃離香港》、《東江縱隊》),” 21st Century Bimonthly (Institute of Chinese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong), No. 152, Dec 2015, pp. 126-136.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “They Are a Little Afraid of the British Admiral”: the China Station of the Royal Navy during the First Sino-Japanese War, 1894-5,” International Bibliography of Military History (Brill), Vol. 35 (2015), pp. 89-114.


  • Chi Man, KWONG; Yiu Lun, TSOI. “PB 3 during the Battle of Wong Nai Chung Gap: From the Japanese Sources,” Surveying and Built Environment (The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors), Vol. 23, No. 1, (2015), pp. 75-89.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “The Failure of the Japanese Land-Sea Cooperation during the Second World War: Hong Kong and the South China Sea as Example, 1942-1945,” Journal of Military History (Society for Military History, an affiliated Society of American Historical Association), Vol. 79, No. 1, (2015), pp. 523-556.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Anglo-Japanese Alliance, the First World War, and the Defence of Hong Kong: the Emergence of the First Landward Defence Line in Hong Kong, 1898-1918,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Hong Kong Branch), Vol. 54, (2014), pp. 7-32.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Finance and the Northern Expedition: From the Northeast Asian Perspective, 1925-1928,” Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press), Vol. 48, No. 06, (2014), pp. 1695-1739.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Reconstructing the Early History of the Gin Drinker’s Line from Archival Sources,” Surveying and Built Environment (The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors), Vol. 22, No. 1, (2012), pp. 19-36.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Revisiting the Guo-Zhang War of 1925: From Military Perspective (從軍事角度重看1925年郭松齡反奉),” Jindaishi xuekan (Central China Normal University), Vol. 9, (2012), pp.18-35.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Revisiting the Zhang Zuolin-Guo Songling War of 1925 (郭松齡事件新探),” Bulletin of Academia Historica (Academia Historica), Vol. 31, (2012), pp. 1-38.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Review Article: Frank Dikötter, The Age of Openness: China before Mao (從馮客《開放時代:毛以前的中國》 看民國時期),” 21st Century Bimonthly (Institute of Chinese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong), No. 118, 2010, pp. 156-159.

Refereed Book Chapters


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Sino-British Military Cooperation and the China-Burma-India Theatre of War, 1940-1945: Observations from British Archival Sources (中英軍事合作與「中緬印戰場」,1940-1945:英國檔案中的觀察),” in中國遠征軍與第二次世界大戰研究計畫國際關係團隊史料導讀, National Chengchi University, forthcoming in 2021.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “More than an Exposed Outpost: The Global Relevance of Hong Kong Military History,” Wong Man Kong and Kwong Chi Man, Hong Kong History: A Global Perspective (Palgrave, 2021), pp. 39-58.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “‘Six taels and four maces (luk-leung-sei)’: Food and Wartime Hong Kong, 1938-1946,” in The Provisions of War: Expanding the Boundaries of Food and Conflict, 1840–1990 (University of Arkansas Press, 2021), chapter 14.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “All About National Survival: Chinese Intellectuals’ Understanding of War during the Interwar Period, 1914–1937,” in Ana Paula Pires; María Inés Tato; Jan Schmidt, The Global First World War: African, East Asian, Latin American and Iberian Mediators (Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2021).


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Hong Kong,” in 1914-1918-online – International Encyclopedia of the First World War – it is an online Encyclopedia created by Free University of Berlin, 2020.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “One Step at a Time: The Lyemun Defences during the Colonial Period (見步行步:殖民地時期鯉魚門地區的防禦工事),” Hong Kong Old and New: Essays on Hong Kong History and Culture, 2017 (鑪峰古今:香港歷史文化論集2018), (Hong Kong: Centre for Hong Kong History and Culture Studies, 2018), pp. 110-129.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “The Hong Kong Chinese Soldiers in the Second World War (第二次世界大戰期間的華籍英兵),” Hong Kong, Society, Tensions (香港.社會.角力), (Hong Kong: Infolink Publishing, 2017), pp. 7-33.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “From Breech-loaders to Atomic Bombs: Liberal Militarism, Capability Gap, and British Defence of Hong Kong, 1878-1958 (從後裝砲到核武:「自由軍國主義」、「戰力差距」與英國在香港防務,1878-1958),” New History of the Coastal Defence of Modern China近代中國海防史新論 (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing, 2017), pp. 480-499.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Liberating Hong Kong,” in End of Empire: 100 Days in 1945 that Changed Asia and the World (Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2015), pp. 158-159.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Yuan Shi-Kai,” Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography, (Great Barrington: Berkshire, 2014).


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Narratives of Hong Kong Military History: the Second World War as Example (重檢香港軍事史論述:二次大戰期間的重要片斷),” Proceeding of the 5th Conference on Hong Kong Culture and Society (Hong Kong: jcMoticon, 2013), pp. 1-35. Currently available online.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “The Beiyang Army during the Battle of Wuhan 1911 (漢口、漢陽戰役中的北洋軍),” From Reform to Revolution: A Collection of Essays in Commemoration of the Centenary of the 1911 Revolution (Hong Kong: City University Press, 2013), pp. 283-307.


  • Chi Man, KWONG. “Searching for Decisive Battle: The Shanhaiguan-Rehe Campaign during the Second Zhili-Fengtian War of 1924 (尋求「決定性戰鬥」:1924年第二次直奉戰爭的熱河-山海關戰役),” King Sang MAK, Decisive Battles in Chinese History (Hong Kong: Cosmos, 2012), pp. 240-273.

General Research Fund:


  • (01/2020-12/2022) The Japanese “Total-State” Experiment in Hong Kong, 1942-1945


  • (01/2017-12/2019) Institutionalisation of Modern Military Science in Republican Chinese Armies: A Study Focusing on the Fengtian and the National Revolutionary Armies 1911-1937


Early Career Scheme:


  • (10/2013-09/2016) Envisioning Future Warfare in China: Tactics, Technology, State, and National Mobilisation, 1914-1937